Six Key Elements of Cybersecurity

Last Updated on 2 years by Touhid

Cyber security is the process and preventive action of protecting computer systems from malicious attacks or unauthorized access. The elements of cybersecurity are very important for every organization or individuals to protect their sensitive information. In this post, we will explain the six key elements of cybersecurity.

Elements of Cybersecurity

There are six essential key elements of cybersecurity such as application security, information security, network security, disaster recovery plan, operational, and end user security.

  1. Application security
  2. Information Security
  3. Network Security
  4. Disaster Recovery Planning
  5. Operational Security
  6. End User Education

Six Elements of Cybersecurity

1. Application Security

Application security is the first key elements of cybersecurity which adds security features within applications during development period to prevent from cyber attacks. It protects websites and web-based applications from different types of cyber security threats which exploit vulnerabilities in  source code.

A. Application Vulnerabilities

Application threats or vulnerabilities can be SQL injection, Denial of Service attacks (DoS), data encryption, data breaches or other types of threats.

B. Categories of Application Threats

The most common categories of application threats related to software or application are as follows:

  • Input validation
  • Authorization
  • Session management
  • Parameter tampering
  • Encryption

C. Application Security Tools

However, there are different types of application security tools such as firewalls, antivirus software, encryption techniques, and web application firewall (WAF) which can help to protect your application software from cyber-attacks and unauthorized access.

2. Information Security

Information security (IS) or InfoSec  is the elements of cyber security which refers to the process and methodology for preventing unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification, or destruction of information.

The information can be anything like your personal details, login credentials, network details, or your profile on social media, mobile phone etc.

Main principle of Information Security

There are three main principle of Information Security, commonly known as CIA – Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability.

Information security is another key elements of cybersecurity

A. Confidentiality

Confidentiality is the protection of information which allows authorized users to access sensitive data. It involves any information that is sensitive and should only be shared with a limited number of people.

Following types of information that is considered as confidential:

  • Name, date of birth, age and address
  • Contact information
  • Bank account details
  • Professional information
  • Email account details
  • Social Media Profile
  • Medial record and
  • Family information
B. Integrity                                                

Integrity means maintaining the consistency, accuracy, and completeness of information. It involves keeping information from being altered or changed and ensures that data cannot be altered by unauthorized people.

C. Availability

Availability ensures that information and resources are accessible to authorized users. If an attacker is not able to compromise the first two principles, then they may try to execute denial of service (DoS) attack.

This attack would bring down the web server and make the website unavailable to legitimate users due to lack of availability.

3. Network Security

Network security is another elements of IT security which process of preventing and protecting against unauthorized access into computer networks.

It is a set of rules and configurations to prevent and monitor unauthorized access, misuse, modification of a computer network and resources. It includes both hardware and software technologies.

A. Network Security Methods

There are many methods to improve network security and the most common network security components are as follows:

  • Antivirus Software
  • Email Security
  • Firewalls
  • Virtual Private Network (VPN)
  • Web Security
  • Wireless Security
  • Endpoint Security
  • Network Access Control (NAC)

Network Security protect unauthorized access into networks

B. Network Security Software

There are varieties of software and hardware tools to protect your computer network. For example, firewall is a network security tool which keeps track of network traffic and what’s happening on your networks.

4. Disaster Recovery Planning

A Disaster Recovery Plan (DRP) is a business continuity plan and managed procedures that describe how work can be resumed quickly and effectively after a disaster.

A disaster recovery strategy should start at the business level and determine which applications are most important to running the organization activities. In determining a recovery strategy, every organization’s should consider the following issues such as:

  • Financial Budget
  • Resources
  • Technology
  • Administration
  • Hardware

When disaster recovery strategies have been developed and approved, then the organization can translate them into disaster recovery plans.

A. Steps of Disaster Recovery Planning

There are 12 steps to help you to prepare a disaster recovery plan which are as follows:

  1. Define scope of the organization assets
  2. Identifying the possible threats and vulnerabilities
  3. Ensure Data Protection
  4. Create a Disaster Recovery Team
  5. Provide training to team members
  6. Establish team members accountability
  7. Create a data recovery plan
  8. Test your data recovery plan
  9. Review regularly
  10. Take back up regularly
  11. Update and Revise Your Plan and
  12. Possible to implement Cloud Backup

B. Types of Disaster Recovery Plans

There are about four types of disaster recovery plans, and according to your business nature you can pick which plan best suits your needs.

  • Data Center Disaster Recovery
  • Cloud-Based Disaster Recovery
  • Virtualization Disaster Recovery
  • Disaster Recovery as a Service

5. Operational Security

Operational security (OPSEC) is an analytical and risk management elements of cybersecurity. OPSEC identifies the organization’s critical information and develops a protection mechanism to ensure the security of sensitive information.

It is also known as procedural security, which encourages managers to view operations in order to protect sensitive information.

Steps of Operational Security

To develop an effective operations security program, the organization’s OPSEC officers first find out and define the possible threats, and then they will take necessary action.

There are five steps to process the operational security program, which are as follows:

  1. Define the organization sensitive information
  2. Identify the categories of threats
  3. Analyze security holes and vulnerabilities
  4. Assessment of Risks
  5. Implementation of appropriate countermeasures

6. End User Education

End-user education is most the important element of computer security. End users are becoming the largest security risk in any organization because it can happen anytime.

However, the end user has no fault of their own, and mostly due to a lack of awareness and business security policies, procedures and protocols.

End user is the most important elements of cybersecurity

A. End User Threats

There are many reasons, that a threat can be created. The end user threats can be created according to following ways:

  • Using of Social Media
  • Text Messaging
  • Apps Download
  • Use of Email
  • Password creation and usages

B. End User Security Program

It is better to arrange a cyber security awareness training program on regular basis and should cover the following topics:

  • Cyber Security and its importance
  • Different types of Cyber Threats
  • How to use Internet
  • Email Phishing and Social Engineering attack
  • Device Security
  • Physical Security
  • Password creation and usages


Cyber security is the process preventive measures for protecting computer systems from cyber threats or unauthorized access. So, the elements of cyber security are very important for us to protect our sensitive information from cyber attacks. Hope the article elements of cybersecurity will be helpful for you.

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