A Hacker is a person who is skilled in computer programs and utilizes their technical knowledge to finds and exploits the weakness in computer systems to gain unauthorized access. There are different types of hacker in the cyber world such as white hat, black hat, and grey hat hacker.
A hacker may steal information, damage or bring down computer systems and networks. However, a hacker can be anyone. They can be an individual or group.
Many organizations who hire hackers as a part of their employee. These hackers use their skills to find out vulnerable and weakness in the organization’s security system. This is done to find and fix the weaknesses and prevent cyber threat from breaking in the security system.
Types of hacker
A hacker is skilled computer expert who uses his technical expertise to overcome a problem. There are different types of hacker in cyber world such as white hat, black hat, and grey hat, based on their intent of hacking a system.
1. Black Hat Hackers
Black Hat hackers, also known as crackers are those who attempt to find computer security vulnerabilities and gain unauthorized access into a system or network to exploit them for malicious reasons.
It is illegal because of its bad intent which includes steal or gain access sensitive information, financial information, login credentials, disrupts the systems, violate the privacy, shutting down the network system etc.
The term “black hat hacker ” is derived from old Western movies, in which the good guys wore white hats and the bad guys wore black hats.
How to prevent Black Hat Hackers
Hacking incidents are increasing day by day in the 21st century. Even you don’t know how you’re bad practices invite a hacker to access your computer system. Here are the tips for the prevention from Black hat hackers.
A. Enter personal information on secure website
If you’re going to enter your sensitive or financial information in a site, first you have to make sure that the site is secure by SSL (Secure Socket Layer) certificate.
Tips: In URL, it will starts with https, such as: https://www.google.com.
- Click on the lock and inspect the website’s SSL certificate. If the certificate and the URL don’t match, or if the certificate is expired, your information may be compromised.
- If you visit a site and you know the site is legitimate and notice the site is not secure, then your information may be also compromised
So, by ensuring site security then you can enter your information.
B. Keep browser up to Date
Keeping your web browser up to date is very important for both security and ensuring that web pages load properly. Out of date web browsers can have serious security problems such as phishing, viruses, trojans, spyware, adware, and other sorts of malware.
However, Security patches are released for popular browsers all the time. Its required couple of minute an update is available, just download and install it.
C. Extension flaw in Windows
There is a very dangerous flaw in Windows operating system which is not resolved yet that you can’t see the extension of a file without going to properties.
For example, if there is an image file then you will only see the name of that image. You can’t see the extension like JPG, PNG without going to properties.
Windows only read the last extension of a file, for example, if a file name is virus.exe which is hidden into a file name virus.exe.jpg then Windows will read it as a JPG file but actually, it is an EXE virus which can hack your computer.
Tip to Prevent : Go to control panel>File Explorer Option>View>Uncheck “Hide extensions for known file types”.
D. Use of Bad USB
Bad USB is the biggest issue in the virus world. Bad USB can destroy your processor, hard disk, software’s and can even burn your processor.
An antivirus can’t detect it because due to reserved space in Pen drive, for example, you have a 16 GB Pendrive then you know that you will get storage around 14 GB.
Actually, that storage used to store system information, volume information and some firmware which is used to run Pendrive.
Also think if there is a malicious code in that reserved volume which can steal your sensitive data, destroy your system by overloading.
Tip to Prevent : So, don’t use anyone’s Pendrive. If you want to use a suspicious Pendrive then use it in Linux, not in Windows
Keylogger is a type of spying technology or system monitor software that recording user keystrokes to steal passwords and other sensitive information. It can record instant messages, email, and capture any other information at any time using keyboard.
A Keylogger installed on a computer system and it has the capability to record every keystroke made on that system.
Tip to Prevent : There are different kinds of keyboards for Computers. The most common type is a physical, external keyboard that plugs into your Computer. But Windows has a built-in Ease of Access tool called the On-Screen Keyboard (OSK) that can be used instead of a physical keyboard.
It is better to use an on-screen keyboard during entering critical passwords or OTPs.
How to open the On-Screen Keyboard : Go to Start , then select Settings > Ease of Access > Keyboard, and turn on the toggle under Use the On-Screen Keyboard.
Phishing is a type of social engineering attack that attempt to gain sensitive and confidential information such as usernames, passwords, credit card information, network credentials, and so more.
It is the common and oldest way used by Black hat hackers to steal data.
In a phishing attack, an attacker sends phishing emails to victims in order to steal of login credentials and account information.
Tip to prevent : Check the main domain or email before accessing any website from untrusted source.
For example, if there is a phishing site similar to Facebook then the main domain will not be Facebook.com, it can be like Facebook.abc.com.
2. White Hat Hackers
A white hat hacker is a computer security specialist who uses hacking skills to breaks into protected systems and networks for penetration testing and strengthens the security of your system.
White Hat hackers are also known as Ethical Hackers. They never intent to harm a system, rather they try to find out weaknesses and vulnerabilities in a computer or a network system.
In addition, this type of hackers is not illegal and it is one of the demanding jobs available in the IT industry.
White hat hackers are paid employees or contractors working for companies as security specialists that attempt to find security holes via hacking.
Most White Hat hackers hold an academic degree in IT security and must be certified to pursue a career in hacking. The most of them have a popular certification is the CEH (Certified Ethical Hacker) from the EC-Council.
It is Note that, some renowned companies like Facebook, Microsoft, and Google also use white-hat hackers.
3. Grey Hat Hackers
A gray hat hacker is someone who may violate ethical standards or principles, but except the malicious intent they exploit a security weakness in a computer system or network without the owner’s permission or knowledge.
The primary goal of gray hat hackers is to improve system and network security.
This type of hacking is still considered illegal because the hacker has not taken any permission from the system owner’s to attempt to filter their systems.
It is combining of both black hat and white hat hackers. Their intent is to bring the weakness to the attention of the owners and getting appreciation or a little gift from the owners.
Other’s types of Hacker
There are also some others types of hacker in the digital world, which are as follows:
- Red Hat Hackers
- Blue Hat Hackers
- Green Hat Hackers
- Elite Hackers
- Script Kiddie